Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

What Armstrong Saw

Simulated view out Armstrong's window
Simulated view of what Armstrong saw as the Lunar Module Eagle approached the aim point on the northeast flank of West crater (190 meters diameter). The odd shape of the image area is due to the small windows in the Eagle. North is to the right, NAC M131494509L [NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University].

The only visual record of the historic Apollo 11 landing is from a 16mm time-lapse (6 frames per second) movie camera mounted in Buzz Aldrin’s window (right side of Lunar Module Eagle or LM). Due to the small size of the LM windows and the angle at which the movie camera was mounted, what mission commander Neil Armstrong saw as he flew and landed the LM was not recorded. The LROC team reconstructed the last three minutes of the landing trajectory (latitude, longitude, orientation, velocity, altitude) using landmark navigation and altitude callouts from the voice recording. From this trajectory information, and high resolution LROC NAC images and topography, we simulated what Armstrong saw in those final minutes as he guided the LM down to the surface of the Moon. As the video begins, Armstrong could see the expected landing point was on the rocky northeastern flank of West crater (190 meters diameter), leading him to take manual control and fly horizontally, searching for a safe landing spot. At the time, only Armstrong saw the hazard; he was too busy flying the LM to discuss the situation with mission control.

After flying over the hazards presented by the bouldery flank of West crater, Armstrong spotted a safe spot about 500 meters down track where he carefully descended to the surface. Just before landing, the LM flew over what would later be called Little West crater (40 meters diameter) and Armstrong would visit and photograph this crater during his extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Of course, during the landing, Armstrong was able to lean forward and back and turn his head to gain a view that was better than the simple, fixed viewpoint presented here. However, our simulated movie lets you relive those dramatic moments.

Note that in the LROC NAC image, the LM descent stage and astronaut tracks are of course visible  something Armstrong did not see during the landing! The incidence (solar) angle on the NAC image is within a degree of the lighting when Apollo 11 landed (just after sunrise), so you see the same dramatic shadows.

How accurate is our simulated view? We reconstructed the view from Aldrin's window from our derived trajectory, and you can view it side-by-side with the original 16mm film. You be the judge!

Be sure and check out the three alternate versions of the video posted just below, especially the two astronaut version: "What Armstrong and Aldrin Saw: Simulation vs. Original Film".

More Videos:
What Armstrong and Aldrin Saw: Simulated and Reconstructed Views
What Armstrong Saw: An Uncropped Simulation
What Armstrong and Aldrin Saw: Simulation and Original Film

For More Fun Visit These Other Apollo 11 Sites:
First Men on the Moon
Apollo 11 in Real Time
Apollo 11 Descent
Apollo 11 Footsteps


ACKNOWLEDGMENT: A time-synchronized version of the original 16mm film (Apollo Flight Journal) and the First Men on the Moon website, which synchronizes the air-to-ground voice transmission with the original 16mm film, greatly aided the production of this work. These sources were played side-by-side with our reconstruction during its production, allowing us to better match the reconstruction to the 16mm film and altitude callouts.

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